Effects of Laissez-Faire Leadership on Commitment to Service Quality


  • Munwar Hussain Pahi Assistant professor, Indus University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Sanober Salman Shaikh Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Zara Ali Abbasi Sukkur IBA University, Pakistan
  • Noor un Nissa Shahani Alhamd Islamic University, Islamabad , Pakistan
  • Dr. Kamal bin Ab Hamid Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.


laissez-faire leadership, commitment, service quality, hospitals


This study aims to examine the validity of Laissez-Faire leadership style among the medical practitioners. This leadership style has been criticized in the literature as the destructive style of leadership. However, laissez-faire leadership style has been responsive for numerous positive behaviors and outcomes at the workplace. Laissez-faire leadership style has remained permissive with other leadership style types. Nonetheless, in comparison with other leadership styles, its significance has been unexplored especially in domains like commitment and service organization. In this study, the authors analyzed how Laissez-Faire leadership relates to the commitment of service quality. While using self-administered approach, the current study sampled doctors from public hospitals of Pakistan. The Partial Least Square Path Modeling results via Smart PLS 2.0 with 182 retained responses. The results indicated that laissez-faire type of leadership persists, and paramount in the services sector and also showed a significant effect on doctor’s commitment. The current research found a significant impact of laissez-faire leadership on doctors’ commitment. Therefore, from the findings, it is referred that this study holds theoretical and practical implications also suggest future directions. 


Ali, A.Y.S., & Ibrahim, I. H. (2014). The Impact of Leadership Style on Corporate Innovation: Survey from Telecommunication Industry in Somalia. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 3(3), 233-241.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of occupational psychology, 63(1), 1-18.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of vocational behavior, 49(3), 252-276.
Alqudah, T. (2011). Leadership style and organizational commitment. (MBA dissertation. Kuala Lumpur: Open University Malaysia, Malaysia).
Amundsen, S., & Martinsen, Ø. L. (2014). Empowering leadership: Construct clarification, conceptualization, and validation of a new scale. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(3), 487-511.
Angle, H.L. & Perry, J. (1981). An empirical assessment of organizational commitment and organization effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26(1), 1-14.
Aronson, E., & Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59(2), 177-181.
Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.
Barling, J., Weber, T., & Kelloway, E. K. (1996). Effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal and financial outcomes: A field experiment. Journal of applied psychology, 81(6), 827.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., & Pointon, J. (1990). The implications of transactional and transformational leadership for individual, team, and organizational development (GJP Greenwich Ed. Vol. 4).
Bennis, W. (2007). The challenges of leadership in the modern world: introduction to the special issue. American Psychologist, 62(1), 2.
Bogler, R., & Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers’ organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(3), 277-289.
Cemaloğlu, N., Sezgin, F., & Kılınç, A. Ç. (2012). Examining the relationships between school principals’ transformational and transactional leadership styles and teachers’ organizational commitment. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 2(2), 53-64.
Clark, R. A., Hartline, M. D., & Jones, K. C. (2009). The effects of leadership style on hotel employees' commitment to service quality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50(2), 209-231.
Davenport, J. (2010). Leadership style and employee commitment: The moderating effect of locus of control. Conference held in Las Vegas in February 2010. ASBBS, 17(1), 277-290.
Dotse, J., & Asumeng, M. (2014). Power Distance as Moderator of the Relationship between Organizational Leadership Style and Employee Work Attitudes: An Empirical Study in Ghana. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research.3(5), 63-76.
Duarte, P. A. O., & Raposo, M. L. B. (2010). A PLS model to study brand preference: An application to the mobile phone market. In Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 449-485). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.Stanford University Press: Stanford, California.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331-362.
Garg, A. K., & Ramjee, D. (2013). The relationship between leadership styles and employee commitment at A parastatal company in South Africa. International Business & Economics Research Journal,12(11), 1411-1436.
Gbadamosi, G. 2003. HRM and the commitment rhetoric: Challenges for Africa, Management Decision, 41(3), 274–280.
Ghorbanian, A., Bahadori, M., & Nejati, M. (2012). The relationship between managers' leadership styles and emergency medical technicians' job satisfaction. The Australasian medical journal, 5(1), 1.
Goodnight, R. (2004). Laissez-faire leadership. The Economic Journal, 98(392), 755-771.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing,, 20, 277-320.
Hinkin, T. R., & Schriesheim, C. A. (2008). An examination of" nonleadership": From laissez-faire leadership to leader reward omission and punishment omission. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1234.
Humphrey SE, Nahrgang JD, Morgeson FP. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1332–1356.
Huynh, V. T. (2014). Leadership in diversity organizations and immigrants’ organizational commitment and subjective general health. Retrieved from: http://bora.uib.no/bitstream/handle/1956/8610/118523556.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Krasikova, D. V., Green, S. G., & LeBreton, J. M. (2013). Destructive leadership a theoretical review, integration, and future research agenda. Journal of Management, 39(5), 1308-1338.
Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Lee, J. (2005). Effects of leadership and leader-member exchange on commitment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(8), 655-672.
Liu, D., Chen, X. P., & Yao, X. (2011). From autonomy to creativity: a multilevel investigation of the mediating role of harmonious passion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2), 294.
Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. The leadership quarterly, 7(3), 385-425.
Luthans, F. (2005). Organizational Behavior (10thed.). New York: McGraw – Hill/ Irwin Publication.
Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Hescovitch, L. & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization. A meta- analysis of antecedents, correlates and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.
Northouse, P.G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. (5th ed.). London: Sage.
Nyengane, M. H. (2007). The relationship between leadership style and employee commitment: An exploratory study in an electricity utility of South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rhodes University).
Pahi, M.H., Hamid K.A., Ahmed, U., & Umrani W.A. (2015) The Unresolved Dilemma of Leadership-Commitment Relationship: A Proposed Framework. Business and Economics Journal, 7(1), 1-5.
Park, S. M., & Rainey, H. G. (2007). Antecedents, mediators and consequences of affective, normative, and continuance commitment empirical tests of commitment effects in federal agencies. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 27(3), 197-226.
Ringle, C.M., Wende, S. and Becker, J.-M. (2015). Smart PLS 3. Smart PLS GmbH, Bönningstedt.
Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A. & Sanghi, S. (2007). Organizational Behavior. (12th ed.). India: Pearson, Prentice Hall.
Rowe, K. (2007). The imperative of evidence-based instructional leadership: Building capacity within professional learning communities via a focus on effective teaching practice. Centre for Strategic Education.
Ryan, J. C., &Tipu, S. A. (2013). Leadership effects on innovation propensity: A two-factor full range leadership model. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 2116-2129.
Shaikh, S. S., & Akaraborworn, C. (2017). Integrative Leadership is a Precursor of Engagement of Bank Employees in Pakistan. International Journal Human Resource Studies, 7(3), 257-281
Sorenson, R. L. (2000). The contribution of leadership style and practices to family and business success. Family Business Review, 13(3), 183-200.
Spinelli, R. J. (2006). The applicability of Bass's model of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership in the hospital administrative environment. Hospital Topics, 84(2), 11-19.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1996). Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2), 483-504.
Spreitzer, G. M., De Janasz, S. C., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Empowered to lead: The role of psychological empowerment in leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 20(4), 511-526.
Sutermeister, R. A. (1969). People and productivity. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Theodosiou, M., &Katsikea, E. (2007). How management control and job-related characteristics influence the performance of export sales managers. Journal of Business Research, 60(12), 1261-1271.
Tichy, N. M., &Devanna, M. A. (1986). The Transformational Leader. New York: Wiley.
Wallace, E., de Chernatony, L., & Buil, I. (2013). Building bank brands: How leadership behavior influences employee commitment. Journal of Business Research, 66(2), 165-171.
Williams, J. C (1987). Human behavior organizations. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western pub.co.
Zellars, K. L., Tepper, B. J., & Duffy, M. K. (2002). Abusive supervision and subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6), 1068.
Zhang, X., & Zhou, J. (2014). Empowering leadership, uncertainty avoidance, trust, and employee creativity: Interaction effects and a mediating mechanism. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124(2), 150-164.