Investigating Pakistani EFL Learners’ Beliefs towards written CF and their impact on L2 writing accuracy: The Case of Urban and Rural context
Keywords:EFL learners; beliefs; written CF; writing accuracy; impact
The current study examines the impact of students’ beliefs on using writing CF. By comparing students’ contexts and investigating beliefs about written CF, this study investigated the topic from the cognitive perspective on cognitive and social perspective. 163 university students at Khwaja Fareed UEIT, Pakistan were participants of this study. Students were placed into three groups: direct, indirect, and metalinguistic CF (urban students) and two groups: direct and indirect CF (rural). Data collected through questionnaires and writing prompts in different pre and post-tests and delayed-post-tests were statically analyzed on SPSS version 28. Findings revealed that there were marginal differences in beliefs of both groups of the students and types of the written CF that is the most effective were different between urban and rural students. Besides, beliefs about written CF were found to impact uptake and retention of written CF more on rural students as compared to the urban students.
Ahiatrogah, P. D., Madjoub, M. B., & Bervell, B. (2013). Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on the Achievement of Basic School Students in Pre-Technical Skills. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n1p77
Al-bakri, S. (2015). Written corrective feedback: Teachers ’ beliefs , practices and challenges in an Omani context. Arab Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 44–73.
Aranha, S., & Cavalari, S. M. S. (2015). Institutional integrated teletandem: What have we been learning about writing and peer feedback? DELTA Documentacao de Estudos Em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 31(3), 763–780. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-445039175922916369
Belaid, A. M., & Murray, D. L. (2015). Using Authentic Materials in the Foreign Language Classrooms: Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions in Libyan Universities. International Journal of Learning and Development, 5(3), 25–37. https://doi.org/10. 5296/ ijld. v 5i3 .8218
Bitchener, J., & Ferris, D.R (2012). Language learning Potential of written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language writing, 21, 348-363
Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2012). Contribution of written CF to language development: A ten months’ investigation. Applied linguistics, 31, 193-214. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/applin/amp01
Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. Oxford : Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.00
Cahyono, B. Y. (2016). The Efficacy of Comprehensive Corrective Feedback in Improving Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners’ Writing Pariyanto Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya Indonesia. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 3(6), 51–59. Retrieved from www.ijllnet.com
Cephe, P. T. & Yalcin, C. G. (2015). Beliefs about foreign language learning: The effects of teacher beliefs on learner beliefs. Anthropologist, 19(1), 167–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2015.11891651
Chen, S., Nassaji, H., & Liu, Q. (2016). EFL learners’ perceptions and preferences of written corrective feedback: a case study of university students from Mainland China. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-016-0010-y
Cresswell, J.W. (2015). Educational Research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New York: Pearson.
Douglas, D. (2018) Performance consistency in second language acquisition and language testing: A conceptual gap. Second Language Research, 17, 442-456.
Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition: Oxford. Oxford University Press
Ellis, R. (2012). The Typology of Written Corrective Feedback. The effects of focused and unfocused written CF in learning English as a foreign language context. System 36(3), 353-371
Farjadnasab, A. & Khudashenas, M. (2017). The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on EFL Students’ Writing. International Journal of Reserach in English Education, 2(2), 30-42. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.2.30
Ferris, D. (2015). Written corrective feedback in L2 writing: Language Teaching.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Fu, T., & Nassaji, H. (2016). Corrective feedback, learner uptake, and feedback perception in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 159–181. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.1.8
García Mayo, M. D. P., & Labandibar, U. L. (2017). The Use of Models as Written Corrective Feedback in English as a Foreign Language (EFL)Writing. 37 Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 11(2), 204-230.
Gries, S. T., & Deshors, S. C. (2015). EFL and/vs. ESL?: A multi-level regression modeling perspective on bridging the paradigm gap. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 1(1), 130–159. https://doi.org/10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.05gri
Han, Y. (2017). Mediating and being mediated: Learner beliefs and learner engagement with written corrective feedback. System, 69, 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.07.003
Holec, H. (2010). The learner as manager: managing learning or managing to learn, in A.L. Wenden and J. Robin (Eds.), learner strategies in language learning (145-157). Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall.
Ivankova, N., & Creswell, J. (2019). Mixed Methods. In Heigham & R. Corker (eds.), Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics. New York, NY : Palgrave Macmillan.
Krutikova, M. (2017). Effective Strategies for Foreign Language Teaching: A Focus on Russians. Languages, Philosophy, and Communication Studies. Logan, Utah: Utah State University.
Lennane, B.M. (2017). Cross-cultural influences on corrective feedback preferences in English Language Instruction. Montreal: McGill University.
Liskinasih, A. (2016). Corrective feedbacks in clt-adopted classrooms’ interactions. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 60–69. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v6i1.2662
Luan, N. L., & Ishak, S. N. A. (2018). Instructor’s direct and indirect feedback: How do they impact learners’ written performance? 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 24(3), 95–110. https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2018-2403-08
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (2017). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37-66.
Nemati, M., Alavi, S. M., & Mohebbi, H. (2019). Assessing the effect of focused direct and focused indirect written corrective feedback on explicit and implicit knowledge of language learners. Language Testing in Asia. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-019-0084-9
Nemati, M., Alavi, S. M., Mohebbi, H., & Masjedlou, A. P. (2017). Teachers’ writing proficiency and assessment ability: the missing link in teachers’ written corrective feedback practice in an Iranian EFL context. Language Testing in Asia, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-017-0053-0
Panova, I., & Lyster, R. (2012). Patterns of Corrective Feedback and Uptake in an Adult ESL Classroom. TESOL Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588241
Rich, P. R., Van Loon, M. H., Dunlosky, J., & Zaragoza, M. S. (2017). Belief in corrective feedback for common misconceptions: Implications for knowledge revision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 43(3), 492–501.
Rizwan, M., & Akhtar, S. (2016). Effect of Explicit and Implicit Pedagogical Instructions in the Acquisition of Definite , Indefinite and Zero Articles. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 4(6), 1–11.
Rummel, S., & Bitchener, J. (2015). The effectiveness of WRITTEN CF and the impact Lao learners’ beliefs have on uptake. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 38(1), 66-84.
Rummel, S. (2014). Student and Teacher Beliefs toward CF and the effects those beliefs have on Uptake: A Multiple Case Study of Laos and Kuwait. Unpublished thesis Retrieved from online on May 22, 2018, http://hdl.handle.net/10292/7717
Saeed, A. (2015). Comparison of the Effectiveness of Direct and Indirect Feedback: The case of EFL Urdu Learners in Pakistan. Unpublished thesis at the Islamia University Bahawalpur.
Sheen, Y. (2007). Effect of focused written CF and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 255-283.
Storch, N., & Wigglesworth, G. (2017). Feedback and writing development through collaboration: A sociocultural approach. In R. Manchon (Ed), L2 writing development: Multiple Perspectives, 60-100. Boston MA: De-gruyter Mouton.
Truscott, J. (1996). The Case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327-369.
Williams, K. (2013). A Case for Explicit Grammar Instruction in English as Second/Foreign Language Classrooms. Academic Leadership Journal in Student Research, 1, 7.
Yang, C., Potts, R., & Shanks, D. R. (2017). Metacognitive unawareness of the errorful generation benefit and its effects on self-regulated learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 43(7), 1073–1092. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000363